Ukraine is your best option if you are looking for your next steps in education and affordable universities in Europe…
The price of success is hard work, dedication to the job at hand, and the determination that whether we win or lose, we have applied the best of ourselves to the task at hand.
Rexford has won Media Personality of the year at the NUGS-KHARKIV “Ghana at 63 Independence celebration, handing over & Awards night” . The virtual event took place via zoom due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 and the continuous additions of quarantine and social distancing measures. Rexford was nominated in the category of; Most influential youth, Media personality of the year, Most promising youth and Face of NUGS
The Tema based high life artiste Nautyca who is arguably a nifty singer is currently signed under MOB Records (Tema) managed by Giant Ghanaian award-winning producer, sound engineer and philanthropist. Awal Alhassan known in showbiz as Possi Gee.
Follow the link below to enjoy the tune
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
5G is the fifth generation of wireless communications technologies supporting cellular data networks. Large-scale adoption began in 2019 and today virtually every telecommunication service provider in the developed world is upgrading its infrastructure to offer 5G functionality. 5G communication requires the use of communications devices (mostly mobile phone) designed to support the technology.
5G – Introduction
Radio technologies have evidenced a rapid and multi-directional evolution with the launch of the analogue cellular systems in 1980s. Thereafter, digital wireless communication systems are consistently on a mission to fulfill the growing need of human beings (1G, …4G, or now 5G).
So, this article describes the 5G technology emphasizing on its salient features, technological design (architecture), advantages, shortcomings, challenges, and future scope.
Salient Features of 5G
5th Generation Mobile Network or simply 5G is the forthcoming revolution of mobile technology. The features and its usability are much beyond the expectation of a normal human being. With its ultra-high speed, it is potential enough to change the meaning of a cell phone usability.
With a huge array of innovative features, now your smart phone would be more parallel to the laptop. You can use broadband internet connection; other significant features that fascinate people are more gaming options, wider multimedia options, connectivity everywhere, zero latency, faster response time, and high quality sound and HD video can be transferred on other cell phone without compromising with the quality of audio and video
5G – Technology
If we look back, we will find that every next decade, one generation is advancing in the field of mobile technology. Starting from the First Generation (1G) in 1980s, Second Generation (2G) in 1990s, Third Generation (3G) in 2000s, Fourth Generation (4G) in 2010s, and now Fifth Generation (5G), we are advancing towards more and more sophisticated and smarter technology.
What is 5G Technology?
The 5G technology is expected to provide a new (much wider than the previous one) frequency bands along with the wider spectral bandwidth per frequency channel. As of now, the predecessors (generations) mobile technologies have evidenced substantial increase in peak bitrate. Then — how is 5G different from the previous one (especially 4G)? The answer is — it is not only the increase in bitrate made 5G distinct from the 4G, but rather 5G is also advanced in terms of −
- High increased peak bit rate
- Larger data volume per unit area (i.e. high system spectral efficiency)
- High capacity to allow more devices connectivity concurrently and instantaneously
- Lower battery consumption
- Better connectivity irrespective of the geographic region, in which you are
- Larger number of supporting devices
- Lower cost of infrastructural development
- Higher reliability of the communications
As researchers say, with the wide range of bandwidth radio channels, it is able to support the speed up to 10 Gbps, the 5G WiFi technology will offer contiguous and consistent coverage − “wider area mobility in true sense.”
5G – Architecture
Architecture of 5G is highly advanced, its network elements and various terminals are characteristically upgraded to afford a new situation. Likewise, service providers can implement the advance technology to adopt the value-added services easily.
However, upgradeability is based upon cognitive radio technology that includes various significant features such as ability of devices to identify their geographical location as well as weather, temperature, etc. Cognitive radio technology acts as a transceiver (beam) that perceptively can catch and respond radio signals in its operating environment. Further, it promptly distinguishes the changes in its environment and hence respond accordingly to provide uninterrupted quality service.
Architecture of 5G
As shown in the following image, the system model of 5G is entirely IP based model designed for the wireless and mobile networks.
The system comprising of a main user terminal and then a number of independent and autonomous radio access technologies. Each of the radio technologies is considered as the IP link for the outside internet world. The IP technology is designed exclusively to ensure sufficient control data for appropriate routing of IP packets related to a certain application connections i.e. sessions between client applications and servers somewhere on the Internet. Moreover, to make accessible routing of packets should be fixed in accordance with the given policies of the user (as shown in the image given below).
The Master Core Technology
As shown in the Figure 5, the 5G MasterCore is convergence point for the other technologies, which have their own impact on existing wireless network. Interestingly, its design facilitates MasterCore to get operated into parallel multimode including all IP network mode and 5G network mode. In this mode (as shown in the image given below), it controls all network technologies of RAN and Different Access Networks (DAT). Since, the technology is compatible and manages all the new deployments (based on 5G), it is more efficient, less complicated, and more powerful.
Surprisingly, any service mode can be opened under 5G New Deployment Mode as World Combination Service Mode (WCSM). WCSM is a wonderful feature of this technology; for example, if a professor writes on the white board in a country – it can be displayed on another white board in any other part of the world besides conversation and video. Further, a new services can be easily added through parallel multimode service.
5G – Time Period Required
Normally, it is expected that the time period required for the 5G technology development and its implementation is about five years more from now (by 2020). But to becoming usable for the common people in developing countries, it could be even more.
Graph 1 − Showing the Timeline of all previous generation technologies.
Expected Time Length
By considering the multiple utility and various fashionable salient features, researchers are anticipating that this technology will be in use until 2040s.
5G – Applications
5G technology is adorned with many as well as distinct features, which applicability is useful for a wide range people irrespective of their purposes (as shown in the mweb image).
Applications of 5G
Some of the significant applications are −
- It will make unified global standard for all.
- Network availability will be everywhere and will facilitate people to use their computer and such kind of mobile devices anywhere anytime.
- Because of the IPv6 technology, visiting care of mobile IP address will be assigned as per the connected network and geographical position.
- Its application will make world real Wi Fi zone.
- Its cognitive radio technology will facilitate different version of radio technologies to share the same spectrum efficiently.
- Its application will facilitate people to avail radio signal at higher altitude as well.
5G – Advancement
Application of 5G is very much equivalent to accomplishment of dream. It is integrated with beyond the limit advance features in comparison to the previous technologies.
In comparison to previous radio technologies, 5G has following advancement −
- Practically possible to avail the super speed i.e. 1 to 10 Gbps.
- Latency will be 1 millisecond (end-to-end round trip).
- 1,000x bandwidth per unit area.
- Feasibility to connect 10 to 100 number of devices.
- Worldwide coverage.
- About 90% reduction in network energy usage.
- Battery life will be much longer.
- Whole world will be in wi fi zone.
5G – Advantages & Disadvantages
5th generation technology offers a wide range of features, which are beneficial for all group of people including, students, professionals (doctors, engineers, teachers, governing bodies, administrative bodies, etc.) and even for a common man.
There are several advantages of 5G technology, some of the advantages have been shown in the above Ericsson image, and many others are described below −
- High resolution and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping.
- Technology to gather all networks on one platform.
- More effective and efficient.
- Technology to facilitate subscriber supervision tools for the quick action.
- Most likely, will provide a huge broadcasting data (in Gigabit), which will support more than 60,000 connections.
- Easily manageable with the previous generations.
- Technological sound to support heterogeneous services (including private network).
- Possible to provide uniform, uninterrupted, and consistent connectivity across the world.
|Some Other Advantages for the Common People|
|Parallel multiple services, such as you can know weather and location while talking with other person.|
|You can control your PCs by handsets.|
|Education will become easier − A student sitting in any part of world can attend the class.|
|Medical Treatment will become easier & frugal − A doctor can treat the patient located in remote part of the world.|
|Monitoring will be easier − A governmental organization and investigating offers can monitor any part of the world. Possible to reduce the crime rate.|
|Visualizing universe, galaxies, and planets will be possible.|
|Possible to locate and search the missing person.|
|Possible, natural disaster including tsunami, earthquake etc. can be detected faster.|
Disadvantages of 5G Technology
Though, 5G technology is researched and conceptualized to solve all radio signal problems and hardship of mobile world, but because of some security reason and lack of technological advancement in most of the geographic regions, it has following shortcomings −
- Technology is still under process and research on its viability is going on.
- The speed, this technology is claiming seems difficult to achieve (in future, it might be) because of the incompetent technological support in most parts of the world.
- Many of the old devices would not be competent to 5G, hence, all of them need to be replaced with new one — expensive deal.
- Developing infrastructure needs high cost.
- Security and privacy issue yet to be solved.
5G – Challenges
Challenges are the inherent part of the new development; so, like all technologies, 5G has also big challenges to deal with. As we see past i.e. development of radio technology, we find very fast growth. Starting from 1G to 5G, the journey is merely of about 40 years old (Considering 1G in 1980s and 5G in 2020s). However, in this journey, the common challenges that we observed are lack of infrastructure, research methodology, and cost.
Still, there are dozens of countries using 2G and 3G technologies and don’t know even about 4G, in such a condition, the most significant questions in everyone’s mind are −
- How far will 5G be viable?
- Will it be the technology of some of the developed countries or developing countries will also get benefit of this?
To understand these questions, the challenges of 5G are categorized into the following two headings −
- Technological Challenges
- Common Challenges
- Inter-cell Interference − This is one of the major technological issues that need to be solved. There is variations in size of traditional macro cells and concurrent small cells that will lead to interference.
- Efficient Medium Access Control − In a situation, where dense deployment of access points and user terminals are required, the user throughput will be low, latency will be high, and hotspots will not be competent to cellular technology to provide high throughput. It needs to be researched properly to optimize the technology.
- Traffic Management − In comparison to the traditional human to human traffic in cellular networks, a great number of Machine to Machine (M2M) devices in a cell may cause serious system challenges i.e. radio access network (RAN) challenges, which will cause overload and congestion.
- Multiple Services − Unlike other radio signal services, 5G would have a huge task to offer services to heterogeneous networks, technologies, and devices operating in different geographic regions. So, the challenge is of standardization to provide dynamic, universal, user-centric, and data-rich wireless services to fulfil the high expectation of people.
- Infrastructure − Researchers are facing technological challenges of standardization and application of 5G services.
- Communication, Navigation, & Sensing − These services largely depend upon the availability of radio spectrum, through which signals are transmitted. Though 5G technology has strong computational power to process the huge volume of data coming from different and distinct sources, but it needs larger infrastructure support.
- Security and Privacy − This is one of the most important challenges that 5G needs to ensure the protection of personal data. 5G will have to define the uncertainties related to security threats including trust, privacy, cyber-security, which are growing across the globe.
- Legislation of Cyberlaw − Cyber-crime and other fraud may also increase with the high speed and ubiquitous 5G technology. Therefore, legislation of the Cyber-law is also an imperative issue, which largely is governmental and political (national as well as international issue) in nature.
5G – Future Scope
Several researches and discussions are going on across the world among technologists, researchers, academicians, vendors, operators, and governments about the innovations, implementation, viability, and security concerns of 5G.
As proposed, loaded with multiple advance features starting from the super high speed internet service to smooth ubiquitous service, 5G will unlock many of the problems. However, the question is — in a situation, where the previous technologies (4G and 3G) are still under process and in many parts yet to be started; what will be the future of 5G?
5th generation technology is designed to provide incredible and remarkable data capabilities, unhindered call volumes, and immeasurable data broadcast within the latest mobile operating system. Hence, it is more intelligent technology, which will interconnect the entire world without limits. Likewise, our world would have universal and uninterrupted access to information, communication, and entertainment that will open a new dimension to our lives and will change our life style meaningfully.
Moreover, governments and regulators can use this technology as an opportunity for the good governance and can create healthier environments, which will definitely encourage continuing investment in 5G, the next generation technology.
As we celebrate Ghanaian music, Dj K Crakk has compiled some of the best hits from stay jay, this mix is nothing but great, enjoy.
follow the link below.
CED COSMETICS ?
CED COSMETICS Is an all-natural beauty solutions company, currently serving about six countries. They make their products with keen attention to customer satisfaction and health promotion. their products contain Shea butter proven to provide fantastic skincare benefits.
FOR MORE INFO VISIT https://cedcosmetics.com/
FROM: THE NUGS NATIONAL SECRETARIAT
TO: SRC PRESIDENTS; LOCAL NUGS PRESIDENTS; DEANS OF
STUDENT AFFAIRS/ INSTITUTIONAL OFFICERS RESPONSIBLE FOR
TOPIC: 2020/21 NON-RESIDENTIAL CONGRESS
1. I bring you warm greetings from the National Secretariat of the National Union of Ghana Students (hereafter referred to as the Union). This memorandum comes to officially remind you that the 2020/21 Congress of the Union shall take place on Monday, May 3, 2021 at the Madina Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), located at the Lakeside Estate, Ashaley Botwe, Accra. Proceedings begin at 9AM prompt. Consequently, as an institutional member of the National Union of Ghana Students, the Union is again reminding your institution to make payment of its subscription dues to the Union for the 2020/21 academic year, as well as pay the capitation for your delegates to Congress.
2.As per Article 13 (l) (i) of the Constitution of the Union, only institutions that
have fulfilled their financial obligations to the Union; i.e. dues and capitation, can
partake in the proceedings of Congress and the election of new leaders.
3. As previously decided by Congress, an institution shall pay annual subscription
dues of GHS 1.00 for each student of the institution. Therefore, if an institution
has, say, 13,450 students, the institution shall make payment of GHS 13,450.00 as
subscription dues to the Union.
4. Capitation for Congress is GHS 100.00 per delegate/ accredited observer from
an institution. Institutions are to make payment of GHS 100.00 each for the total
number of delegates/ observers they are presenting to Congress.
5. Institutions are to pay their annual dues subscription and capitation for delegates into the
Union’s bank account with the following details:
Account Name: NATIONAL UNION OF GHANA STUDENTS
Account Number: 1161130000887
Bank/ Branch: GCB BANK, BOUNDARY ROAD
6. No cheque will be accepted on the day of Congress. Institutions are therefore to make the
payments now to be able to participate in the proceedings of Congress. Institutions will be
required to present their receipts to the Secretary for Finance and President for endorsement
before being allowed to partake.
7. All enquiries as regards the dues and capitation should be channeled to the Secretary for
Finance of the Union, Mr. Peter Darkwah, whose contact number is 0547701440.
8. Schools that have not submitted their delegates lists should do so with immediate effect
before the publishing of the Delegates/Voters Register on Thursday, April 29, 2021. No
school that has not been published in the Delegates/Voters Register is legally permitted to
vote. The lists should be submitted to firstname.lastname@example.org.
9. Any other enquiry may be forwarded to the General Secretary via the email address
.10. I appreciate your attention.
DIVINE EDEM KWADZODEH
Deans of Student Affairs/
Institutional Officers Responsible for Student Affairs
Local NUGS Presidents
There is always the need for us to revamp the ways of doing things to pave way for the yet to be elected crop of executives to run the affairs of the union. Even as we prepare to beautifully welcome that day, it remains the duty of the current executives to continue doing exploits.
On Friday the 19th of February 2021, NUGS had the august opportunity to grace the occasion of the handing over ceremony of Yamfo College of Health in the Ahafo region to witness the swearing in of their new executives to man the affairs of the college.
The occasion however gave NUGS the singular opportunity to donate nose masks and hand sanitizers to the Yamfo Methodist Primary and JHS. This benevolence is in line with the government’s quest to prevent the spread of the virus and also to enable the students to adhere to the COVID-19 safety protocols.
On that same day, NUGS moved expeditiously to the University of Energy and Natural Resources (UENR) in the Bono region to pay a courtesy call on the Dean of Students and the SRC executives. This move sought to bring hope to the student leaders and also to encourage them to offer more in their capacity as leaders.
It remains the ultimate aim of NUGS to serve students’ interest.
The Leadership of the National Union of Ghana Students ( NUGS) as part of its Education outreach continued their tour in the #Amansie_South District in the Ashanti Region together with Hon. Clement Opoku Gyamfi, DCE for Amansie South District in the Manso Adubia Constituency in the Ashanti Region.
The Union Executives continued to publicize NUGS at the basic level.
The Leadership donated some PPEs to these various institutions as means of supporting students observe COVID-19 Safety Protocols.
Schools toured on Day 2 included ;
Subinso/Kwabenaso DA Primary School. Mmuoho DA Primary and Abiram Methodist Primary School.
Leadership of the National Union of Ghana Students as part of its Education outreach toured the #Amansie_South District in the Ashanti Region. The tour within the district was anchored by Hon. Clement Opoku Gyamfi, DCE for Amansie South District in the Manso Adubia Constituency in the Ashanti Region.
This visit also dwelled on matters of students safety and issues affecting students.The initiative also afforded us the opportunity to publicize NUGS at the basic level.
The Leadership donated some PPEs to the various institutions as means of supporting students observe COVID-19 Safety Protocols.
Schools toured included Kumpese/ Akwasi So DA Primary School, Nyankomase TI Almadia Basic School, Manso Adubia United Basic School.
Yesterday 17th April, 2021 was the NUGS-Kharkiv annual Inter-Hall Quiz which aims to inculcate in the minds of young learners the spirit of scientific enquiry and analytical thinking and also to provide a platform for exchanging thoughts and to nurture a feeling of integration among students.
Due to the COVID-19 restrictions the 3 hours quiz was virtually held via zoom platform and also was stream live on Facebook which gave access to everyone to watch from various places globally.
At the end of the quiz J Naana Hall was crowned as winners of the competition.
“Congratulations to J Naana Hall for emerging victorious in the first season of the Hann’s quiz competition. Your performance was indeed outstanding 🔥 . Keep it up!!
McBrown Hall and Kenpong Hall thanks for giving us a good contest. Better luck next time!
Congratulations once again.
PRO: OBENG El-Pachris”
We thank all the participants for the overwhelming results.
Below is the link to watch the recorded video.
The RONDO hit maker Soulja Kelly has brighten our screen again with a classic victuals “Out The Trench” Movie
Click on the link below to watch
It’s worth it! This is the unanimous perception among volunteers working in vaccination actions against Covid-19 in Santa Maria. Without receiving for this, students and teachers in the health area, retired professionals and other volunteers play essential roles for the vaccine to reach the arm of santa-marienses. They are the ones who, from early on vaccination days, register, organize and apply the doses that can help the municipality overcome the pandemic.
According to the city, the Health Department has 260 volunteers trained to act in vaccination, according to the demand. In vaccination in elderly people over 68 years, last Tuesday, about 100 volunteers were scattered around vaccination points. Academics from five educational institutions participate: Franciscan University, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Integrated College of Santa Maria (Fisma), SEG and Polytechnic College of UFSM. Although most are young, there are also those who add experience to the volunteer team. One example is retired nurse Rosenara Berleze Penna, 58. On Tuesday, she worked in the aspiration of doses in the ufsm drive-thru and took the experience of those who organized the immunization of Santa Maria in the pandemic of H1N1, more than 10 years ago, when she worked as coordinator in the immunization sector of the city.
– I’ve always worked for SUS. So I think I have this commitment to the community to help at this very difficult time – he says, with a smile on his face.
The retired Ana Lúcia Lang Motta, 60 years old, helps with the knowledge of those who worked for 15 years in the immunization sector of the municipality. Alongside Rosenara, she served in the ufsm drive-thru. Retired two years ago, she says she can still learn from her colleagues and doesn’t mind waking up early in the morning to get to the vaccination site early.
– These are hard times and it’s time for us to help each other. We work with a new gurizada, academics, it is an exchange is super rich – explains.
And this exchange is a two-way street.
– They learn to work as a team, they can see larger actions. We do actions with more than 1,000 vaccinated. They have to have greater agility, learn to live with the team, acting during a pandemic. All this adds a lot to their training – explains the professor of the Nursing Technician of the Polytechnic College Caren da Silva Jacobi, 30 years old, who coordinated the team of volunteers of UFSM.
In the case of UFSM, the volunteers were selected by a form, which was sent by e-mail to students of the nursing courses. Students were preferably called closer to the completion of the course. The others were directed to a database and can be summoned in case of need. At UFN, the process was similar, and a WhatsApp group was created to coordinate the activities. One of the members of the group is the student Felipe Del Fabro, 24 years old, a nursing student at UFN, who makes a point of participating in all possible vaccination actions.
– It comes from the profile of nursing students, this desire to be contributing, helping others. We feel refreshed. Get out of here with a lot of compliments, thanks. I’ve never been so blessed. Many elderly people are vaccinated and say “God bless you.” They even bring bombom – reports Del Fabro, who acted as a vaccinator at Clube Dores.
In addition, about 200 other employees participated in the action, including health professionals and commissioned positions of the Departments of Urban Mobility, Social Development and Civil Housing, in an integrated action. Army personnel also assist in vaccination, with logistical support for the organization and assembly of tents.
For Health Secretary Guilherme Ribas, volunteering makes all the difference to the success of immunization against Covid-19. The use of volunteers is not unprecedented in such campaigns. Last year, for example, volunteers worked on the application of influenza vaccines, even if on a smaller scale.
– The support of volunteers and educational institutions, being a university city, shows the commitment of these institutions to the population of Santa Maria. Also the support of other secretariats, which is essential, in order to be able to make more and more progress in vaccination – ribas points out.
Among the volunteers, there is even international aid. The Ghanaian Zaria Adams, 26, participated for the first time as a volunteer last Tuesday. She arrived in Brazil in 2017 and started her nursing course in 2018 at UFSM.
Zaria is a former student of Only Believe senior high school Kukurantumi, in the eastern Region of Ghana.
“I wanted to participate, because I’m helping and learning too. I’m very happy helping people. The pandemic got in the way of everyone – it counts.”
According to the city’s Vacinometer, updated on Friday last week, 43,436 doses of vaccine were applied in the city. The 4,200 vaccines applied on Tuesday and the more than 5,500 on Thursday are not included in this account.
The audio mixing and mastering workshop, held in partnership with South Africa’s Sheer Music Publishing, is open to emerging and established sound engineers and other music stakeholders.
It will be led by renowned Ghanaian music producer and sound engineer Awal ‘Possigee’ Alhassan, who is known for working with popstars like Sarkodie, Wizkid, Stonebwoy, Shatta Wale and Fuse ODG, among others.
The organisers said the masterclass would “engage young and creative engineers to learn the construction of fundamental mixing techniques that apply digital audio workstations like Pro Tools, DP and Ableton.”
Additionally, the workshop aims to impart proper production methods at every stage of the song-making process while allowing participants to mix along in real time.
“The government and leaders of our art and creative sector have contributed less to upsurge the music industry which could increase foreign direct investments in the country,” a statement on Possigee’s website(link is external) reads. “It is in this context that Possigee has devoted himself to help augment the sound engineering situation in Ghana by impacting the tacit knowledge and experience acquired in sound engineering to the young people of today.”
Possigee told Music In Africa that fellow producers DDT, Seshi, Fortune Dane and MOG would also facilitate the workshop. In addition, representatives from Sheer Publishing will be present to take participants through topics relating to copyright, royalties and publishing.
The deadline for registrations is 25 April.
Interested Person can register here
The Ho Airport located in the Volta Regional capital is expected to undergo a commercial flight testing exercise in two weeks.
The Transport Minister, Kweku Ofori Asiamah, announced this after inspecting the facility on Tuesday.
Africa World Airline will operate two Accra-Ho-Accra flights per week, Monday and Friday, possibly at a one-way fare of GhC100.00
The $25 million Ho Airport designed to hold two medium-sized aircraft at a time, with a passenger capacity of 100 was completed in 2017.
In September 2020, Africa World Airline announced its readiness to begin operations at the facility after carrying out feasibility studies on the safety and economic prospects of the airport.
Given this, the Volta Regional Minister, Dr. Archibald Letsa, the Transport Minister, Kweku Ofori Asiamah, and an entourage from the Ghana Airport Company Limited, Ghana Civil Aviation Authority, and other relevant institutions toured the facility to ascertain its readiness for commercial flights.
A full complement of communication and weather systems, an X-ray machine among other requisite machinery has been installed to ensure smooth operation of the facility.
Mr. Asiamah expressed his satisfaction at the level of preparation and indicated that government aims to establish a pilot training institution at the airport to enhance the training of Human Resources for the sector.
He appealed to the chiefs to ensure the lands allocated for the development of the airport are protected for future use.
Dr. Letsa implored people in the Volta Region to patronize the airport, adding that the facility would see an increase in allocation of flights, only if patronage is encouraging.
The Warlord of the Asogli State, Togbe Lakle Howusu XII, said the airport would play a significant role in the socio-economic development of the Volta Region, and lauded the government on the operationalization of the facility.
Every time a tragic aviation accident occurs, you’re likely to hear the news mention something about the hunt for the plane’s black boxes. These units are said to contain vital information that can reveal why a particular airplane might have crashed. Since the 1950s, the data inside black boxes has helped accident investigators, airline manufacturers, and aviation professionals improve flight safety for everyone.
A Black Box is able to withstand many accident scenarios without sustaining damage. Before being put into use, they are tested to see if they can withstand an impact with a concrete wall at 750 kilometers per hour (about 466 miles/hour), a static load of 2.25 tons for at least five minutes, a maximum temperature 1,100 degrees Celsius (2,012 Fahrenheit) for one hour and water pressure found in depths of up to 6,000 meters (about 19,700 feet).
They are a significant contribution to airline safety, but have you ever wondered how they actually work
1. They’re actually made of two components: the flight data recorder and cockpit voice recorder.
Technically there isn’t one single “black box” on each plane. Instead, there are two parts — the flight data recorder (FDR), and the cockpit voice recorder (CVR). During a flight, the FDR tracks information about the plane itself, like its direction and speed, while the CVR records audio of the crew’s conversations, radio transmissions, engine sounds, and alarm noises.
Sometimes they can be combined together in one unit, but they are often two separate devices. They’re also quite expensive to make. The standard flight data and cockpit voice recorder system can cost anywhere from $10,000 to $15,000 to produce.
2.Human error is one of the primary reasons black boxes exist.
It’s true that inventions are born out of human necessity. In the 1950s, an Australian research scientist named David Warren helped to investigate the repeated plane crashes of the first commercial jet airliner, The Comet. He proposed that if researchers had knowledge of what happened on the plane moments before it went down, it would help them figure out how to improve the next flight.
While mechanical failure is a very real possibility, it’s been noted by several sources that the most common cause of airline crashes is pilot mistake. This is arguably why the CVR (cockpit voice recorder) exists, and not solely the flight data recorder.
3.The locations of black boxes can be traced in the bottom of deep oceans thanks to a special tracking component.
Every flight data recorder contains a tool called an underwater location beacon (ULB). This makes it possible for investigators tofind it if a plane crashes into a body of water. Once underwater, it sends out an acoustic signal that searchers can detect with a special receiver.
Finding the FDR and CVR from a plane that’s crashed into an ocean can still be tricky. In order for the signal to be heard, one has to be within a 15-mile range of the beacon. On top of that, the battery life only lasts for 30 days after it’sbeen submerged.
However, it’s not impossible. Two years after the 1987 crash of South African Airways295, investigators found the plane’s cockpit voice recorder 16,000 feet below the surface.
4.Black boxes are usually placed in the airplane’s tail because that’s where the least damage will occurs.
Even though the CVR records cockpit audio, the recording device itself doesn’t sit up front with the pilots. Typically the pilot area is fitted with several microphones, but the actual device that stores the recordings is hidden in the tail of the plane. This prevents the FDR and CVR from being completely destroyed in a crash since the tail typically feels the impact last.
As Joe Janes of the Information School at The University of Washington said, “Planes rarely back into mountains.”
5.Airplane black boxes are extremely durable.
The Australian Transport Safety Bureau reports that flight data recorders can withstand fires up to 1,100 degrees Celsiusand a continuous pressure force of 5,000 pounds for up to five minutes. In addition, they can endure water pressure at depths up to 20,000 feet.
6.Only a special committee is allowed to listen to black box data.
Once an FDR or CVR has been recovered from a plane crash site, it gets transported to a special lab for analysis. After the data is extracted, a panel of exclusive aviation VIPs, everyone from industry experts, airplane manufacturers, and FAA officials, meet to review its contents. They then piece together the audio recordings and information from the FDR and try to deduce what happened in the moments leading up to an incident. The rules regarding who gets to be involved in the investigation are very strict and highly regulated by The US National Transportation Safety Board.
In fact, the US Congress explicitly forbids CVR audio recordings from being released to the public. They only publish the written transcript of the CVR data after the official safety hearing occurs.
What are the colors black box?
Although they are called ‘black boxes,’ aviation recorders are actually painted bright orange. This distinct color, along with the strips of reflective tape attached to the recorders’ exteriors, help investigators locate the black boxes following an accident. These are especially helpful when a plane lands in the water.